Chapter 02: Fetal Gas Exchange and Circulation Walsh: Neonatal and Pediatric Respiratory Care, 5th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following embryonic germ layers gives formation to the respiratory system? a. Endoderm b. Mesoderm c. Ectoderm d. Periderm ANS: A The respiratory system—pharynx, lungs, and epithelial lining of the trachea and lungs— originates in the endoderm. Refer to Box 2-1 in the textbook to see the list of various tissue systems found in the three embryonic layers. 2. What is the function of Wharton’s jelly inside the umbilical cord? a. To help provide nutrition to the fetus b. To prevent the vessels inside the cord from kinking c. To help protect the fetus d. To regulate the temperature between the fetus and the mother ANS: B Wharton’s jelly, a gelatinous substance inside the umbilical cord, helps protects the vessels of the fetus and may prevent the cord from kinking. 3. Which of the following organ is considered to be the first complete form? a. Heart b. Brain c. Lungs d. Kidneys ANS: A The heart is considered to be the first complete organ formed. By 8 weeks of gestation, the normal fetal heart is fully functional, complete with all chambers, valves, and major vessels. 4. A pregnant woman is coming for an early prenatal evaluation and wants to know if she can listen to the baby’s heartbeat. How early can the fetal heartbeat be detected? a. Day 8 b. Day 22 c. Day 45 d. Day 60 ANS: B By day 22, cardiac contractions are detectable and bidirectional tidal blood flow begins. 5. Which of the following anatomic structures are fetal shunts? I. Foramen ovale II. Sinus venosus III. Duc IV. Ductus arteriosus a. I and III only b. I, III, and IV only c. I, II, and IV only d. II, III, and IV only ANS: B Figure 2-6 in the textbook illustrates fetal circulation and the three shunts present in the fetus that close soon after birth. They include (1) the foramen ovale, the opening between the right atrium and the left atrium, which enables oxygenated blood to flow to the left side of the fetalread more
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