Chapter 2: Understanding the Research Process and Ethical Issues in Nursing Research Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A research design that examines relationships between and among variables is referred to as: 1. longitudinal. 2. correlational. 3. prospective. 4. retrospective. 2. Nonexperimental research is often said to be weaker than experimental research in terms of: 1. establishing whether a problem exists. 2. establishing for whom a problem exists. 3. documenting a causal relationship. 4. all of the above. 3. A situation where the identity of subjects remains unknown to protect subjects participating in a study is referred to as: 1. confidentiality. 2. human rights. 3. risk-benefit ratio. 4. anonymity. 4. All of the following groups deserve special protection as subjects in research, except: 1. men and women over 65 years of age. 2. children. 3. prisoners. 4. mentally ill. 5. A researcher wants to determine if nurses’ levels of empathy for patients change after graduation from nursing school. The following groups are measured: new graduates, nurses who have worked for 2 years, and nurses who have worked for 5 years, on empathy toward patients with a comparison of scores. This study is: 1. prospective. 2. retrospective. 3. cross-sectional. 4. experimental. 6. A researcher designs an experiment to test how variables interact to influence how well children learn. The main purpose of this study is: 1. description. 2. explanation. 3. influence. 4. prediction. 7. A study that follows a cohort of subjects and collects data over time is referred to as: 1. observational. 2. retrospective. 3. longitudinal. 4. experimental. 8. Individuals who provide data in a research study are often referred to as the:read more
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