Focus on Pharmacology: Essentials for Health Professionals, 3e (Moini) Chapter 1 Introduction to Pharmacology 1) The study of drugs derived from herbal sources is known as: A) pharmacotherapeutics B) pharmacognosy C) pharmacokinetics D) pharmacodynamics Answer: B Explanation: B) Pharmacognosy is the study of drugs derived from herbal sources, and other natural sources. By studying the compositions of natural substances and how the body reacts to them, one gains better knowledge for developing purified versions. 2) Which of the following organizations is a part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services? A) DEA B) CDC C) FDA D) TJC Answer: C Explanation: C) The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The determination of the correct use of prescription and OTC agents is controlled by the branch of the FDA known as the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). 3) Animal pharmacology and toxicology data are obtained during which of the following phases of drug approval? A) Phase I B) Phase II C) Phase III D) Phase IV Answer: A Explanation: A) Phase I of drug approval is when animal pharmacology and toxicology data are obtained. This phase is known as Preclinical Investigation. It involves extensive research on human and microbial cells in a laboratory. Cultured cells and animal studies are used to determine dosages, effectiveness, and adverse effects. 4) Which of the following drug approval phases consists of three trials? A) Phase I B) Phase II C) Phase III D) Phase IV Answer: B Explanation: B) Phase II of drug approval consists of three trials. It is also known as Clinical Investigation, and is the longest, occurring over 2 to 10 years, 5 years being the average. Clinical Phase 1 trials occur over several months. Clinical Phase 2 trials occur over several months to 2read more
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