FOUNDATION IN MICROBIOLOGY 10TH EDITION TEST BANK Sample Test Answers to Writing to Learn Questions/Writing Challenge Questions CHAPTER 1 1. What does it mean to say microbes are ubiquitous? From the Latin ubique, meaning ―everywhere‖, it is a succinct way of saying that microbes exist everywhere throughout the natural world, even areas with extreme conditions. Other ways to express this idea are the terms universally widespread and constantly present. The only environments that are microbefree have probably been artificially sterilized by humans. 2. What is meant by diversity? The term diversity is used to denote the immense variety in different types of organisms, with regard to such characteristics as appearance, life style, and distribution. Although about 1.2 million different species of organisms have been discovered and named, this is only a small fraction of the true diversity present over the entire planet and its millions of habitats. The case study emphasizes that we are still at the early stages in exploring the richness of life (especially of the microbial type) that is hidden and largely unknown because of small size and inaccessiblity. 3. Most important events and discoveries: Many hundreds of separate scientists and labs contributed to the rise of microbiology during its early history. Tools such as the microscope allowed direct observation of samples and their microbial contents. Microbes were subsequently seen as discrete entities that could be observed, described, and documented much like larger organisms. Development of laboratory techniques for culturing microbes using sterile techniques allowed macroscopic handling and control of microbes so they could be studied and understood in greater depth.read more
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